Optimisation of adult Anopheles funestus blood-feeding on an artificial membrane feeding system

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17159/2254-8854/2023/a16314

Keywords:

Malaria vector, defibrinated cattle blood, mosquito density, lactic acid, colony

Abstract

Malaria is one of the most severe vector-borne diseases caused by Plasmodium parasites and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. Laboratory-reared anophelines are essential to advance research needed to reduce or eliminate malaria. The success of laboratory rearing as well as studies on parasite-mosquito transmission, is advanced by using an artificial membrane feeding systems. These require the optimisation of mosquito feeding to ensure that an optimal number of mosquitoes feed, thereby enabling successful reproduction or research sample sizes. In this study, various parameters such as the type of artificial membrane, density of adults in the feeding cup, age of the mosquito, duration of starvation, method of starvation, the volume of blood meal, duration of feeding, feeding in the light or dark and the effect of lactic acid were evaluated to determine their impact on the feeding rate of a main African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus. By optimising the artificial membrane feeding parameters, an increase in the feeding rate of the An. funestus mosquitoes was observed. The results obtained from these parameters increased the feeding rate of An. funestus above 50%. However, feeding rates were not significantly increased by the type of membrane, mosquito density, the volume of blood meal, duration of feeding and the addition of lactic acid to the cattle intestine membrane. Therefore, this study provides information on suitable conditions for adult mosquito feeding that allows for successful laboratory rearing and colony maintenance. Furthermore, it provides additional information for research studies that are dependent on blood-feeding, such as transmission blocking studies, endectocide studies etc.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Arendse LB, Murithi JM, Qahash T, Pasaje CFA, Godoy LC, Dey S, Gibhard L, Ghidelli-Disse S, Drewes, G, Bantscheff M, Lafuente-Monasterio MJ. 2022. The anticancer human mTOR inhibitor sapanisertib potently inhibits multiple Plasmodium kinases and life cycle stages. Science Translational Medicine 14(667):eabo7219. https://doi.org10.1126/scitranslmed.abo7219.

Charlwood JD, Thompson R, Madsen H. 2003. Observations on the swarming and mating behaviour of Anopheles funestus from southern Mozambique. Malaria Journal 2:2.

https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-2-2.

Coetzee M, Koekemoer LL. 2013. Molecular systematics and insecticide resistance in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus. Annual Review of Entomology 58:393–412. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153628.

Coulibaly MB, Wu Y, Coulibaly B, Sacko A, Assadou MH, Traore SF, Sinaba Y, Hume JCC, Sylla L, Sagara I, et al. 2017. Optimizing direct membrane and direct skin feeding assays for Plasmodium falciparum transmission-blocking vaccine trials in Bancoumana, Mali. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 97(3):719–725. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.16-1000.

Debrah I, Afrane YA, Amoah LE, Ochwedo KO, Mukabana WR, Zhong D, Zhou G, Lee MC, Onyango SA, Magomere EO, Atieli H. 2021. Larval ecology and bionomics of Anopheles funestus in highland and lowland sites in western Kenya. Plos One 16:(10):ep.0255321. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0255321.

Delves M, Plouffe D, Scheurer C, Meister S, Wittlin S, Winzeler EA, Sinden RE, Leroy D. 2012. The activities of current antimalarial drugs on the life cycle stages of Plasmodium: a comparative study with human and rodent parasites. PLoS Medicine 9(2):e1001169. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001169.

Dias LS, Caldeira JC, Bauzer LG, Lima JB. 2020. Assessment of Synthetic Membranes for Artificial Blood-feeding of Culicidae. Insects 12:15. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010015.

Dormont L, Bessière JM, Cohuet A. 2013. Human skin volatiles: a review. Journal of chemical ecology 39:569–578. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-013-0286-z.

Felamboahangy LNN, Kaiser ML, Zengenene MP, Okumu F, Munhenga G, Koekemoer LL. 2023. Optimisation of laboratory-rearing parameters for Anopheles funestus larvae and adults. Acta Tropica 238:106785. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2022.106785.

Friend WG, Smith JJB. 1977. Factors affecting feeding by bloodsucking insects. Annual Review of Entomology 22:309–331. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.22.010177.001521.

Gillies MT, Coetzee M. 1987. A supplement to the Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara. Publications of the South African Institute for Medical Research no 55, pp 1–143.

Gillies MT, De Meillon B. 1968. The Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara (Ethiopian zoogeographical region). Publication of the South African Institute for Medical Research no 54. pp 1–343.

Gunathilaka N, Ranathunge T, Udayanga L, Abeyewickreme W. 2017. Efficacy of blood sources and artificial blood-feeding methods in rearing of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for sterile insect technique and incompatible insect technique approaches in Sri Lanka. BioMed Research International 2017:3196924. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3196924.

Hunt RH, Brooke BD, Pillay C, Koekemoer LL, Coetzee M. 2005. Laboratory selection for and characteristics of pyrethroid resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 19(3):271–275. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2005.00574.x.

Jové V, Venkataraman K, Gabel TM, Duvall LB. 2020. Feeding and Quantifying Animal-Derived Blood and Artificial Meals in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes. Journal of Visualized Experiments 164:61835. https://doi.org/10.3791/61835.

Kahamba NF, Finda M, Ngowo HS, Msugupakulya BJ, Baldini F, Koekemoer LL, Ferguson HM, Okumu FO. 2022. Using ecological observations to improve malaria control in areas where Anopheles funestus is the dominant vector. Malaria Journal 21:158. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-022-04198-3.

Maharaj S, Ekoka E, Erlank E, Nardini L, Reader J, Birkholtz LM, Koekemoer LL. 2022. The ecdysone receptor regulates several key physiological factors in Anopheles funestus. Malaria Journal 21:97. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-022-04123-8.

McMeniman CJ, Corfas RA, Matthews B.J, Ritchie SA, Vosshall LB. 2014. Multimodal integration of carbon dioxide and other sensory cues drives mosquito attraction to humans. Cell 156(5):1060–1071. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.12.044.

Melgarejo-Colmenares K, Cardo MV, Vezzani, D, 2022. Blood-feeding habits of mosquitoes: hardly a bite in South America. Parasitology Research 121(7):1829–1852. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-022-07537-0.

Nanang, M., Fuad, N., Didik, R., Topo, S. and Panuwun, J. 2018, October. Effect of alkaline fluids to blood pH and lactic acid changes on sub maximal physical exercise. In IOP conference series: earth and environmental science. IOP Publishing 197(1):012049.

https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/197/1/012049.

Ngowo HS, Hape EE, Matthiopoulos J, Ferguson HM, Okumu FO. 2021. Fitness characteristics of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus during an attempted laboratory colonization. Malaria Journal 20:148. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03677-3.

Nunn F, Baganz J, Bartley K, Hall S, Burgess S, Nisbet AJ. 2020. An improved method for in vitro feeding of adult female Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite) using Baudruche membrane (goldbeater’s skin). Parasites and Vectors 13:585. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04471-x.

Pritchard SL, Rogers PC, Baum ES. 1987. Rationale and recommendations for the irradiation of blood products. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 7(2):115–124.

Raji JI, Melo N, Castillo JS, Gonzalez S, Saldana V, Stensmyr MC, DeGennaro M. 2019. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes detect acidic volatiles found in human odor using the IR8a pathway. Current Biology 29(8):1253–1262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.045.

Reader J, van der Watt ME, Taylor D, Le Manach C, Mittal N, Ottilie S, Theron A, Moyo P, Erlank E, Nardini L, et al. 2021. Multistage and transmission-blocking targeted antimalarials discovered from the open-source MMV Pandemic Response Box. Nature Communication 12(1):269. https://doi/org/10.1038/s41467-020-20629-8.

Rutledge LC, Ward RA, Gould DJ. 1964. Studies on the feeding response of mosquitoes to nutritive solutions in a new membrane feeder. Mosquito News 24:407–409.

Steib BM, Geier M, Boeckh J. 2001. The effect of lactic acid on odour-related host preference of yellow fever mosquitoes. Chemical Senses 26(5):523–528. https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/26.5.523.

Timinao L, Vinit R, Katusele M, Schofield L, Burkot TR, Karl S. 2021. Optimization of the feeding rate of Anopheles farauti ss colony mosquitoes in direct membrane feeding assays. Parasites and Vectors 14:356. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04842-y.

WHO. 2022. World malaria report. 2022. ISBN 978924006489840496. Geneva: World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240064898 .

Zengenene MP, Munhenga G, Chidumwa G, Koekemoer LL. 2021. Characterization of life-history parameters of an Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory strain. Journal of Vector Ecology E46:24–29. https://doi.org/10.52707/1081-1710-46.1.24.

Downloads

Published

2023-10-27

How to Cite

1.
Aswat AS, Christian R, Koekemoer L. Optimisation of adult Anopheles funestus blood-feeding on an artificial membrane feeding system. Afr. Entomol. [Internet]. 2023 Oct. 27 [cited 2024 Apr. 14];31. Available from: https://www.africanentomology.com/article/view/16314

Issue

Section

Articles

Funding data