Mosquito community composition in Central District, Botswana: insights from a malaria endemic to non-endemic gradient


  • M Buxton Department of Biological Sciences, Physical and Chemical Sciences, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone, Botswana & Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Palapye, Botswana
  • C Nyamukondiwa Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Palapye, Botswana & Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, Makhanda, South Africa
  • M Kesamang Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Palapye, Botswana
  • RJ Wassweman Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Palapye, Botswana & Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, Makhanda, South Africa



Bobirwa, endemicity status, mosquito-borne diseases, Serowe, species composition, vectors, Palapye


Spatial distribution of vector mosquitoes plays a critical role in the dynamics of associated diseases’ spread across diverse landscapes. In Botswana, six Districts are implicated as malaria endemic zones, one of which is the Central District comprising both malaria endemic and non-endemic sub-districts. Despite being the biggest in the country, mosquito diversity in this District is under-explored, more so in the malaria non-endemic sub-districts. Here, we thus sampled mosquito adults and larvae from the malaria endemic sub-district of Bobirwa and non-endemic sub-districts of Palapye and Serowe, to determine spatial mosquito abundance and diversity in the District. Overall, all the sub-districts had a representation of key mosquito taxa of medical and economic importance (Aedes, Culex and Anopheles), irrespective of malarial endemicity status. Bobirwa had the highest number of mosquitoes sampled (429) although the greatest species richness (0.8511) was observed from Palapye. Moreover, Palapye also recorded a species from another genus, Culiseta longiareolata, a known natural vector of avian malaria parasites. Given global climate shift projections for the region, there is a need for continuous area-wide surveillance for vector mosquitoes and associated parasites in curbing the risk of emerging and re-emerging infections. While the Anopheles-centric approach to mosquito control is still necessary, a holistic approach, incorporating other vector incriminated mosquito species is warranted, particularly given shifting climates and the presence of invasive disease associated vector mosquito species.


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Buxton M, Nyamukondiwa C, Kesamang M, Wassweman R. Mosquito community composition in Central District, Botswana: insights from a malaria endemic to non-endemic gradient. Afr. Entomol. [Internet]. 2023 Mar. 23 [cited 2023 Jun. 7];31. Available from: