Palm wine as a food-based bait for monitoring adult Ceratitis ditissima (Munro) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchards




fermented-food attractant, field trapping, monitoring, pest control, smallholder farmers, tephritid fruit flies


Tephritid fruit flies, including Ceratitis ditissima, often invade citrus orchards. These flies cause economic losses to farmers and can prevent farmers from exporting their fruits to foreign markets. To detect the presence of fruit flies in citrus orchards, traps are baited with synthetic lures, which are often expensive for smallholder farmers. Farmers in developing or financially less-endowed countries have to import such synthetic baits, raising the cost of pest monitoring and control. Therefore, we evaluated the potential of palm wine and three other food-based mixtures for trapping C. ditissima and the proportion of non-target flies they trap. Transparent deli cup traps were baited with four different food-based baits, namely palm wine, sugarcane spirit-wine mixture, apple cider vinegar and yeast-sugar mixture. The traps were placed within a citrus orchard on fruit-bearing trees. The content of each trap was collected after one week and evaluated. This was repeated for eight consecutive weeks. Traps baited with palm wine captured more C. ditissima than those with the other baits. Furthermore, the proportion of non-target insects, Bactrocera dorsalis and Drosophila spp., in palm wine-baited traps was less than the other baited traps. This study indicates that palm wine, a cheap beverage across Africa, Asia and South America, could be used to monitor the presence of C. ditissima in citrus orchards. Smallholder farmers who cannot afford expensive synthetic baits could make use of palm wine to monitor fruit flies in their farms.


Download data is not yet available.


Abraham J, Opuni-Frimpong E, Weissbecker B, Schütz S, Angeli S. 2014. Olfactory cues of mahogany trees to female Hypsipyla robusta. Bulletin of Insectology 67: 21–30.

Abraham J, Zhang A, Angeli S, Abubeker S, Michel C, Feng Y, Rodriguez-Saona C. 2015. Behavioral and antennal responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to volatiles from fruit extracts. Environmental Entomology 44: 356–367.

Abraham J, Angeli S, Antwi JB, Rodriguez-Saona C. 2022. Editorial: Research advances on Drosophila suzukii. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 10: 897222.

Alcarde AR, Souza LM, Bortoletto AM. 2014. Formation of volatile and maturation-related congeners during the aging of sugarcane spirit in oak barrels. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 120: 529–536.

Anno-Nyarko FO. 1998. The major citrus production constraints: Status of citrus research and the future of the citrus industry in Ghana. Paper presented at the first Biennial National Agricultural Research Systems Workshop, Accra, Ghana. 1, 18.

Ansari MS, Hasan F, Ahmad N. 2012. Threats to Fruit and Vegetable Crops: Fruit flies (Tephritidae) – Ecology, behaviour, and management. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology 15: 169–188.

Badii KB, Billah MK, Afreh-Nuamah K, Obeng-Ofori D, Nyarko G. 2015. Review of the pest status, economic impact and management of fruit-infesting flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Africa. African Journal of. Agricultural Research 10: 1488–1498.

Beers EH, Smith TJ, Walsh D. 2021. Spotted wing drosophila. Available at: [Accessed 20 October 2021].

Beers EH, van Steenwyk RA, Shearer PW, Coates WW, Grant JA. 2011. Developing Drosophila suzukii management programs for sweet cherry in the western United States. Pest Management Science 67: 1386–1395.

Biasazin TD, Chernet HT, Herrera SL, Bengtsson M, Karlsson MF, Lemmen-Lechelt JK, Dekker T. 2018. Detection of volatile constituents from food lures by tephritid fruit flies. Insects 9(3): 119.

Birke A, Acosta E, Aluja M. 2015. Limits to the host range of the highly polyphagous tephritid fruit fly Anastrepha ludens in its natural habitat. Bulletin of Entomological Research 105: 743–753.

Bortoletto AM, Alcarde AR. 2015. Assessment of chemical quality of Brazilian sugar cane spirits and cachaças. Food Control 54: 1–6.

Burrack HJ, Asplen M, Bahder L, Collins J, Drummond FA, Guédot C, Isaacs R, Johnson D, Blanton A, Lee JC, Loeb G, Rodriguez-Saona C, van Timmeren S, Walsh D, McPhie, DR. 2015. Multistate comparison of attractants for monitoring Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in blueberries and caneberries. Environmental Entomology 44: 704–712.

Candia IF, Bautista V, Larsson Herrera S, Walter A, Ortuño Castro N, Tasin M, Dekker T. 2019. Potential of locally sustainable food baits and traps against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata in Bolivia. Pest Management Science 75(6): 1671–1680.

Cha DH, Adams T, Werle CT, Sampson BJ, Adamczyk JJ Jr, Rogg H, Landolt PJ. 2014. A four component synthetic attractant for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) isolated from fermented bait headspace. Pest Management Science 70: 324–331.

Cha DH, Gill MA, Epsky ND, Werle CT, Adamczyk Jr, JJ, Landolt PJ. 2015. From a non-target to a target: identification of a fermentation volatile blend attractive to Zaprionus indianus. Journal of Applied Entomology 139: 114–122.

Chen P, Ye H, Liu J. 2006. Population dynamics of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and analysis of the factors influencing the population in Ruili, Yunna Province, China. Acta Ecologica Sinica 26: 2801–2808.

Cloonan KR, Abraham J, Angeli S, Syed Z, Rodriguez-Saona C. 2018. Advances in the chemical ecology of the Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) and its applications. Journal of Chemical Ecology 44(10): 922–939.

Cossé AA, Todd JL, Millar JG, Martínez LA, Baker TC. 1995. Electroantennographic and coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic responses of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, to male-produced volatiles and mango odor. Journal of Chemical Ecology 21: 1823–1836.

Dhillon MK, Singh R, Naresh JS. Sharma HC. 2005. The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae: A review of its biology and management. Journal of Insect Science, 5(1): 40.

Ekesi S, Billah MK. 2007. A field guide to the management of economically important Tephritid fruit flies in Africa (2nd Edition). The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology. icipe Science Press, Nairobi, Kenya.

Ekesi S, De Meyer M, Mohamed SA, Virgilio M, Borgemeister C, 2016. Taxonomy, ecology, and management of native and exotic fruit fly species in Africa. Annual Review of Entomology 61: 219–238.

Ekesi S, Mohamed S, Tanga, CM. 2014. Comparison of food-based attractants for Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and evaluation of Mazoferm–Spinosad bait spray for field suppression in mango. Journal of Economic Entomology 107: 299–309.

Epsky ND, Gill MA, Robert ML 2015. Grape juice as a bait for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 108: 2065–2073.

Epsky ND, Kendra PE, Peña J, Heath RR, 2011. Comparison of synthetic food-based lures and liquid protein baits for capture of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) adults. Florida Entomologist 94: 18–185.

Filgueiras RMC, De Azevedo FR, Azevedo R, De Farias RB, Coutinho CR. 2016. Livestock manure as an alternative attractant for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava tree. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical 46: 51–56.

Faye PD, Bal AB, Ndiaye NM, Diop F, Sangaré YK, Haddad C, Coly EV, Dieng EO, Niassy S. 2021. Field efficacy of Metarhizium acridum (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) in the control of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchards in Senegal. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 41(2):1185–1195.

Foba CN, Afreh-Nuamah K, Billah MK, Obeng-Ofori D. 2012. Species composition of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the citrus Museum at the Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), Kade, Ghana. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 32: 12–23.

Gnanvossou D, Hanna R, Goergen G, Salifu D, Tanga CM, Mohamed SA, Ekesi S, 2017. Diversity and seasonal abundance of tephritid fruit flies in three agro‐ecosystems in Benin, West Africa. Journal of Applied Entomology 141(10): 798–809.

Grassi A, Anfora G, Maistri S, Maddalena G, De Cristofaro A., Savini G, Ioriatti C. 2014. Development and efficacy of Droskidrink, a food bait for trapping Drosophila suzukii. In: IOBC VIII Workshop on Integrated Soft Fruit Production. 26–28 May 2014, Vigalzano di Pergine, Italy. Available at [Accessed 20 October 2021].

Guillemain MJ, Díaz Nieto, LM, Suárez L, Rull J, Ovruski S, Acosta JC, Molina D, Murua F. 2021. Offseason Medfly Trapping Using Makeshift Fruit-Based and Wine Vinegar Baits. Neotropical Entomology 50: 289–297.

Hanna R, Gnanvossou D, Goergen G, Bokonon-Ganta AH, Mohamed SA, Ekesi S, Agnontchémè AI. 2020. Efficiency of food-based attractants for monitoring tephritid fruit flies diversity and abundance in mango systems across three west African agro-ecological zones. Journal of Economic Entomology 113(2): 860-871.

Hollingsworth R, Vagalo M, Tsatsia F. 1997. Biology of melon fly, with special reference to the Solomon Islands. In: Allwood AJ, Drew RAI (editors). Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. Proceedings of Australian Country Industrial Agricultural Research 76: 140–144.

Kambura C, Tanga CM, Kilalo D, Muthomi J, Salifu D, Rwomushana I, Ekesi S. 2018. Composition, host range and host suitability of vegetable-infesting tephritids on cucurbits cultivated in Kenya. African Entomology 26(2): 379–397.

Karamoko D, Djeni NT, N’Guessan KF, Bouatenin KMJ-P, Dje KM. 2012. The biochemical and microbiological quality of palm wine samples produced at different periods during tapping and changes which occured during their storage. Food Control. 26: 504–511.

Keesey IW, Knaden M, Hansson BS. 2015. Olfactory specialization in Drosophila suzukii supports an ecological shift in host preference from rotten to fresh fruit. Journal of Chemical Ecology 41: 121–128.

Kimbokota F, Njagi PGN, Torto B, Ekesi S, Hassanali A. 2013. Responses of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to volatile emissions of fruits from three hosts. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 3: 53–60.

Knight AL, Basoalto E, Yee W, Hilton R, Kurtzman CP. 2016. Adding yeasts with sugar to increase the number of effective insecticide classes to manage Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in cherry. Pest Management Science 72: 1482–1490

Landolt PJ, Adams T, Rogg H. 2012. Trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), with combinations of vinegar and wine, and acetic acid and ethanol. Journal of Applied Entomology 136: 148–154

Lawson LEV, Brentu FC, Cornelius EW, Oduro KA, Sedano ME, Vicent A. 2017. Crop loss and control of Pseudocercospora fruit and leaf spot of citrus in Ghana. European Journal of Plant Pathology 147: 167–180.

Lee JC, Burrack HJ, Barrantes LD, Beers EH, Dreves AJ, Hamby KA, Haviland DR, Isaacs R, Richardson TA, Shearer PW, Stanley CA, Walsh DB, Walton VM, Zalom FG, Bruck DJ. 2012. Evaluation of monitoring traps for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in North America. Journal of Economic Entomology 105: 1350–1357.

Lee JC, Shearer PW, Barrantes LD, Beers EH, Burrack HJ, Dalton DT, Dreves AJ, Gut LJ, Hamby KA, Haviland DR, Isaacs R, Nielsen AL, Richardson T, Rodriguez-Saona CR, Stanley CA, Walsh DB, Walton VM, Yee WL, Zalom FG, Bruck DJ. 2013. Trap designs for monitoring Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Environmental Entomology 42: 1348–1355.

Li, X, Yang H, Wang T, Wang J, Wei H, 2019. Life history and adult dynamics of Bactrocera dorsalis in the citrus orchard of Nanchang, a subtropical area from China: implications for a control timeline. ScienceAsia, 45(3): 212–220.

Lloyd AC, Hamacek EL, Kopittke RA, Peek T, Wyatt PM, Neale CJ, Eelkema M, Gu H. 2010. Area-wide management of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Central Burnett district of Queensland, Australia. Crop Protection 29: 462–469.

Manrakhan A, Daneel JH, Beck R, Virgilio M, Meganck K, De Meyer M. 2017. Efficacy of trapping systems for monitoring of Afrotropical fruit flies. Journal of Applied Entomology 141(10): 825–840.

Mokam DG, Djiéto-Lordon C, Bilong CB, Lumaret JP. 2018. Host susceptibility and pest status of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) attacking cucurbits in two agroecological zones of Cameroon, Central Africa. African Entomology 26(2): 317–332.

Nojima S, Linn Jr C, Morris B, Zhang A, Roelofs W. 2003. Identification of host fruit volatiles from Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) attractive to Hawthorn-origin Rhagoletis pomonella flies. Journal of Chemical Ecology 29: 321–336.

Ofosu-Budu KG, Monney EO, Quaye E, Amankwah A, Mintah P, Mpere-Asare C, Agboka M. 2007. Citrus production in Ghana. Horticulture Export Industry Initiatve (HEII), Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Accra, Ghana. 108 pp.

Perea-Castellanos C, Pérez-Staples D, Liedo P, Díaz-Fleischer F. 2015. Escape of Mexican fruit flies from traps baited with CeraTrap and effect of lure feeding on reproduction and survival. Journal of Economic Entomology 108: 1720–1727.

Piñero JC, Souder SK, Smith TR, Fox AJ, Vargas RI. 2015. Ammonium acetate enhances the attractiveness of a variety of protein-based baits to female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 108: 694–700.

Robacker DC, Heath RR, 1996. Attraction of Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to lures emitting host-fruit volatiles in a citrus orchard. Florida Entomologist 79: 600–602.

Shet VB, Belur PD. 2015. Production of concoction wine using palm sap and raisin through batch fermentation. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences 5: 293–296.

Siderhurst MS, Jang EB. 2010. Cucumber volatile blend attractive to female melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). Journal of Chemical Ecology 36: 699–708.

Stewart CD, Braman SK, Sparks BL, Williams-Woodward JL, Wade GL, Latimer JG. 2002. Comparing an IPM Pilot Program to a Traditional Cover Spray Program in Commercial Landscapes, Journal of Economic Entomology 95(4): 789–796.

Stringini M, Comitini F, Taccari M, Ciani M. 2009. Yeast diversity during tapping and fermentation of palm wine from Cameroon. Food Microbiology 26: 415–420.

Suszkiw J. 2014. Pest’s taste for fine wine may prove its undoing. In: Sowers R, Kendall S. (Eds). Agricultural Research. AgResearch Magazine 62, 9. [Accessed 20 October 2021].

Thomas MC, Heppner JB, Woodruff RE, Weems HV, Steck GJ, Fasulo TR. 2019. Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae). Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension. University of Florida. (Accessed 13 July 2022).

Ukwuru MU, Awah JI. 2013. Properties of palm wine yeasts and its performance in wine making. African Journal of. Biotechnology 12: 2670–2677.

Uzochukwu SVA, Balogh E, Tucknott O, Lewis MJ, Ngoddy PO. 1997. Volatiles of palm wine using solvent extracts. Journal of Food Quality 20: 483–494.

Vayssieres J-F, Adandonon A, Sinzogan A, Korie S. 2010. Diversity of fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) associated with citrus crops (Rutaceae) in southern Benin in 2008–2009. International Journal of Biological Sciences 4: 1881–1897.

Walsh DB, Bolda MP, Goodhue RE, Dreves AJ, Lee J, Bruck DJ, Walton VM, O’Neal SD, Zalom FG. 2011. Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): Invasive pest of ripening soft fruit expanding its geographic range and damage potential. Journal of Integrated Pest Management 2: 1–7.

Yazid JB, Chafik Z, Imane BIBI, Bousamid A, Kharmach EZ. 2020. Key fruit flies species (Diptera, Tephritidae) reported in Africa and presenting a biosecurity concern in Morocco: An Overview. Moroccan Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1(4).

Zehnder GW, Sikora EJ, Goodman WR. 1995. Treatment decisions based on egg scouting for tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), reduce insecticide use in tomato. Crop Protection 14(8): 683–687.

Zida I, Nacro S, Dabiré R, Somda I. 2020. Seasonal abundance and diversity of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in three types of plant formations in Western Burkina Faso, West Africa. Annals of the Entomological Society of America.

Zhou X-W, Niu C-Y, Han P, Desneux N. 2012. Field evaluation of attractive lures for the fruit fly Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their potential use in spot sprays in Hubei Province (China). Journal of Economic Entomology 105(4): 1277–1284




How to Cite

Abraham J, Amissah C, Kuffour FO, Abraham JD. Palm wine as a food-based bait for monitoring adult Ceratitis ditissima (Munro) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchards. Afr. Entomol. [Internet]. 2023 Feb. 10 [cited 2024 Apr. 14];31. Available from: