No evidence for host plant associated genetic divergence in a population of Bullacris unicolor (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pneumoridae)

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17159/2254-8854/2022/a12473

Abstract

Host-associated genetic differentiation in grasshoppers has received limited attention, due to a lack of information on grasshopper-plant associations. The bladder grasshopper, Bullacris unicolor (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pneumoridae), is a phytophagous species that can occur on at least six host plants within its geographic range. However, the relationship between host plant association and genetic variation of bladder grasshoppers has not been studied before. In light of this, the present study examined host plant-related genetic [mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene regions] and morphological (antennal length, body length, head width, abdomen width, femur length, tibia length and pronotum length) divergence within a population of B. unicolor. We used two plant species, belonging to different families, namely Didelta spinosa (L.fil.) Aiton (Asteraceae) and Roepera morgsana (L.) Beier & Thulin (Zygophyllaceae), to evaluate variation between individuals collected on these two sympatric host plants at a single locality in the Northern Cape, South Africa. The results demonstrated non-significant host related genetic variation with very low values of FST, indicating a low level of variation. The phylogram strongly indicated that there are no host-associated genetic differences in B. unicolor by displaying limited genomic clustering, whereas some differentiation was observed between the morphological measurements of males and females among host plants. Further studies using microsatellite molecular markers may help to discern population genetic structure. In addition, significant host-associated morphological divergence highlights the need to examine the mechanisms by which host utilization affects morphological features.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Rekha Sathyan, Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa

Post-doc candiadate

Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology

The University of the Western Cape

Vanessa Couldridge, Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa

Position: Deputy HOD Department: Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Faculty: Faculty of Natural Sciences Qualifications: PhD (Witwatersrand)   My publications in this repository More about me: here, and here Tel: 021 959 2314 Fax: 021 959 2312 Email: vcouldridge@uwc.ac.za

Adriaan Engelbrecht, Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa

Position: Senior Lecturer
Tel: +27 (021) 959 2306
Fax: +27 (021) 959 1219
Email: adengelbrecht@uwc.ac.za

References

Augustyn WJ, Anderson B, van der Merwe JF, Ellis AG. 2017. Spatial turnover in host-plant availability drives host-associated divergence in a South African leafhopper (Cephalelus uncinatus). BMC Evolutionary Biology 17(1): 72. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-017-0916-0

Avise J. 2000. Phylogeography: the history and formation of species. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press;. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv1nzfgj7

Awmack CS, Leather SR. 2002. Host plant quality and fecundity in herbivorous insects. Annual Review of Entomology 47(1): 817–844. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.47.091201.145300

Bierbaum TJ, Bush GL. 1990. Genetic differentiation in the viability of sibling species of Rhagoletis fruit flies on host plants, and the influence of reduced hybrid viability on reproductive isolation. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 55(2): 105–118. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.1990.tb01353.x

Bruce TJA. 2015. Interplay between insects and plants: dynamic and complex interactions that have coevolved over millions of years but act in milliseconds. Journal of Experimental Botany 66(2): 455–465. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eru391

Bush GL, Butlin R. 2001. Sympatric speciation in insects. In: Dieckmann U, Metz H, Doebeli M, Taut D, editors. Adaptive speciation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press;.

Chapman RF, Sword GA. 1997. Polyphagy in the Acridomorpha. In: Gangwere SK, Muralirangan MC, Muralirangan M, editors. The Bionomics of grasshoppers, katydids and their kin. Wallingford: CABI.

Diehl SR, Bush GL. 1984. An evolutionary and applied perspective to insect biotypes. Annual Review of Entomology 29(1): 471–504. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.29.010184.002351

Donelson N. 2007. Inter- and intraspecific variation in the Superfamily Pneumoridae. Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/

Drés M, Mallet J. 2002. Host races in plant-feeding insects and their importance in sympatric speciation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Series B 357(1420): 471–492. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2002.1059

Folmer O, Black M, Hoeh W, Lutz R, Vrijenhoek R. 1994. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology 3: 294–297.

Fritz RS, Simms EL. 1992. Plant Resistance to herbivores and pathogens. Chicago: University of Chicago Press;. pp 590. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226924854.001.0001

Fu Y. 1997. Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations against population growth, hitchhiking and background selection. Genetics 147(2): 915–925. https://doi.org/10.1093/genetics/147.2.915

Funk DJ, Filchak KE, Feder KE. 2002. Herbivorous insects: model systems for the comparative study of speciation ecology. Genetica 116(2/3): 251–267. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021236510453

Hall TA. 2005. BioEdit 7.0.5. (North Carolina State University, Department of Microbiology.) Available at http://www.mbio.ncsu.edu/BioEdit/bioedit.html [accessed 2 January 2020].

Hsu SU, Cocroft RB, Snyder RL, Lin CP. 2018. You stay, but I Hop: host shifting near and far co-dominated the evolution of Enchenopa treehoppers. Ecology and Evolution 8(4): 1954–1965. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3815

Huson D, Bryant D. 2006. Application of phylogenetic networks in evolutionary studies. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23(2): 254–267. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msj030

Janz N, Nylin S. 1997. The role of female search behaviour in determining host plant range in plant feeding insects: a test of the information processing hypothesis. Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences 264(1382): 701–707. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1997.0100

Kim S. 2015. ppcor: An R Package for a Fast Calculation to Semi-partial Correlation Coefficients. Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods 22: 665–674.

Librado P, Rozas J. 2009. DnaSP v5: a software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Bioinformatics 25(11): 1451–1452. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btp187

Matsubayashi KW, Ohshima I, Nosil P. 2010. Ecological speciation in phytophagous insects. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata134(1): 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.2009.00916.x

Posada D, Crandall KA. 1998. Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14(9): 817–818. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/14.9.817

Ramos-Onsins SE, Rozas J. 2002. Statistical properties of new neutrality tests against population growth. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19(12): 2092–2100. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004034

R Core Team. 2021. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP. 2003. MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19(12): 1572–1574. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180

Roy L, Dowling APG, Chauve CM, Buronfosse T. 2009. Delimiting species boundaries within Dermanyssus Duges, 1834 (Acari:Dermanyssidae) using a total evidence approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 50(3): 446–470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2008.11.012

Sathyan R, Engelbrecht A, Couldridge VCK. 2017. Morphological, acoustic and genetic divergence in the bladder grasshopper Bullacris unicolor. Ethology Ecology & Evolution 29(6): 552–573. https://doi.org/10.1080/03949370.2017.1287915.

Scheffer SJ, Lewis ML, Hébert JB, Jacobsen F. 2021. Diversity and host plant-use in North American Phytomyza holly leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae): colonization, divergence, and specificity in a host-associated radiation. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 114(1): 59–69. https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/saaa034

Simon C, Frati F, Beckenbach A, Crespi B, Liu H, Flook P. 1994. Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 87(6): 651–701. https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/87.6.651

Swofford DL. 2002. PAUP* Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). Version 4. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates

Sword GA, Dopman EB. 1999. Developmental specialization and geographic structure of host plant use in a polyphagous grasshopper, Schistocerca emarginata (= lineata) (Orthoptera: acrididae). Oecologia 120(3): 437–445. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004420050876

Sword GA, Joern A, Senior LB. 2005. Host plant-associated genetic differentiation in the snakeweed grasshopper, Hesperotettix viridis (Orthoptera: acrididae). Molecular Ecology 14(7): 2197–2205. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02546.x

Tajima F. 1989. Statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis by DNA polymorphism. Genetics 123(3): 585–595. https://doi.org/10.1093/genetics/123.3.585

Traxler MA, Joern A. 1999. Performance tradeoffs for two hosts within and between populations of the oligophagous grasshopper Hesperotettix viridis (Acrididae). Oikos 87(2): 239–250. https://doi.org/10.2307/3546739

Via S. 2001. Sympatric speciation in animals: the ugly duckling grows up. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16(7): 381–390. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02188-7

Wood TK, Keese MC. 1990. Host-plant-induced assortative mating in Enchenopa treehoppers. Evolution 44: 619–628.

Downloads

Published

2022-07-09

How to Cite

1.
Sathyan R, Vanessa C.K. Couldridge VC, Adriaan Engelbrecht AE. No evidence for host plant associated genetic divergence in a population of Bullacris unicolor (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pneumoridae) . Afr. Entomol. [Internet]. 2022 Jul. 9 [cited 2022 Nov. 29];30. Available from: https://www.africanentomology.com/article/view/12473

Issue

Section

Articles

Funding data